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The International Society of Precision Agriculture (https://www.ispag.org/) adopted the following definition of precision agriculture in 2019.:
“Precision Agriculture is a management strategy that gathers, processes and analyses temporal, spatial and individual data and combines it with other information to support management decisions according to estimated variability for improved resource use efficiency, productivity, quality, profitability and sustainability of agricultural production.”
Precision agriculture is the science of improving the yield that informs management decisions by using high technology and analytical tools. This is a new concept that increases production, reduces labour time and secures efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation. This approach uses large volumes of data and information on the condition and health of crops with high special resolution during the vegetation period. One of its core results is reduced input of resources.
Modern agricultural production relies on observation of crop condition through measuring indicators such as soil condition, plant health, the effect of fertilizers and pesticides, irrigation and yield. The management of all these factors is a serious challenge that led to rapid enhancement of the role of high technology.
The remote monitoring systems such as hyperspectral images for creation of precise biophysical maps with indicators are applied at various stages of the crop development. The image spectroscopy of large, uninterrupted narrow sections provides valuable information thanks to which researchers explore the biophysical and biochemical plant properties. Physical process modifications are also identified and are clearly discernible through the multispectral remote monitoring systems. They are often used in combination with geographical information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS).
With the help of all those modern technologies agricultural producers are able to reduce the input and achieve maximum cost-benefit ratio. The Variable Rate Technology (VRT) is introduced to increase the precision of agricultural practices. This technology is dominant in the practice of larger landholders. The information gathered in the field estimates the proper chemical agent quantities to be applied.